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PART 4:   Petroleum Ports General Information Jebel Dhanna / Ruwais


4.1 Ruwais Port General Information



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4. Petroleum Ports General Information

    4.1 Ruwais Port General Information

      4.1.01 Ruwais Petroleum Port

      Consists of Jebel Dhanna Terminals, TAKREER Berths, GASCO Berth, FERTIL jetty, TAKREER (sulphur), BOROUGE and Service Harbour. Ruwais Petroleum Port is some 220 kilometres West of Abu Dhabi city, capital of the United Arab Emirates. The ort of Ruwais consists of six major terminals. The crude oil terminal at Jebel Dhanna is operated by Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO).
      The other five terminals at Ruwais are a refined oil terminal is operated by Abu Dhabi Oil Refining Company (TAKREER), a gas terminal operated by Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO), a bulk cargo Urea and Liquid Ammonia terminal operated by Ruwais Fertilizer Industries (FERTIL), a Sulphur Handling Terminal operated by TAKREER, a Polyethylene terminal operated by the Abu Dhabi Polymers Company Ltd. (BOROUGE) and a Service Harbour (see Adm. Chart No. 3780).


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      4.1.02 VHF Radio

      Ruwais marine maintains a 24 hour listening watch on VHF channel 16 and 9.


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      4.1.03 Entering and Navigation within the Port

      Navigation / movement within the Port limits are permitted subject to prior permission being granted by the Port Authority. Vessel visiting the port area must have onboard, a sufficient range of current hydrographic charts and other nautical publications (such as light list, tide tables, pilot books, etc.) relevant to the area. These charts and publications must be of the latest edition and kept up to date with regard to notice to mariners and other notices promulgated for the area.
      Prior to port entry and during pilotage, position fixing should be carried out at frequent Intervals


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      4.1.04 Cautions Prohibited Areas

      Prohibited areas exist for a distance of 2 cables (365 meters) around any Petroleum Ports berth at which any ship is engaged in loading or discharging any petroleum cargo and No vessel or boat may enter such prohibited area without instructions from the Port Authority.

      RESTRICTED AREAS

      Restricted areas have been established around Ruwais Port. Navigation and anchorage is prohibited to all unauthorized vessels not under control of a pilot. Within this area no vessel or boat may secure or make fast to the petroleum jetty without instruction from the Harbour Master. It is essential that vessels / boat approaching Ruwais Port do not enter the oilfield areas or anchor in the vicinity of submarine pipelines.


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      4.1.05 Service Harbour

      Ruwais small boat harbour commonly known as Ruwais Construction Wharf consists of four berths and one Ro – Ro berth, is situated to the East of the Ruwais Petroleum Complex. Vessels and barges with a draft of less than 4.2 metres may enter and lie safely alongside.
      IRSHAD are using these berths for port operations.
      Presently small boat harbour undergoing major upgrading of existing facilities. Depth of basin will be increased to 8 m. and will be called as Ruwais Industrial Area Services Harbour (RIASH). VTMS station will be installed in Ruwais Port Control Room.


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      4.1.06 Reporting of Incidents or Defects

      If any incident occurs within the Ruwais Port, it must be reported immediately and in writing to the Port Authority.
      Incidents between ships/boats must likewise be reported but the owners are responsible for their own legal action.
      Any defects, machinery or equipment failures, etc. which occurs while the vessel is at the port, should immediately be reported to the Port Authorities, followed by a written report giving full details.


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      4.1.07 Tugs and Mooring Launches

      Twin screw tugs (40-70 tonne bollard pull) are used for both berthing and unberthing of vessels.   The number of tugs to be used is at the discretion of the pilot, but normally two tugs will be used for each operation, the tugs using their own towlines.  All the port tugs are fitted with foam / water monitors and dispersant spray booms.


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      4.1.08 General Cargo Operation

      No loading / unloading facilities exist in the Port area for cargo vessels and such vessels must provide all equipment and machinery to facilitate transfer of cargo to / from barges, lighters, etc. at the designated anchorage area.


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      4.1.09 Bunkers

      Available only at Refinery/GASCO berths and should be arranged through the Ship’s Agent.


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      4.1.10 Water, Provisions and Supplies

      Available only at Refinery berths and should be arranged through the Ship’s Agent. Emergency stores may be obtainable at Ruwais anchorage by giving 48 hours notice to the ship’s agent and permission from the port control.


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      4.1.11 Crew Change

      There are no facilities for crews of visiting vessels to join or leave vessels at Ruwais Port. Repatriation for medical reasons may be arranged at Master’s request with the consent of the Port Authority, Resident Medical Officer and Chief of Police.


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      4.1.12 Ships’ Business

      Agency work is carried out by registered shipping agents who are appointed by the vessel’s owners, charters or Master.


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      4.1.13 Gangways

      Shore gangways are provided at Petroleum Ports facilities, Vessel to provide access steps from gangway at ship’s rail.
      At SPM berths the vessel must provide accommodation ladder on both sides of the vessel for access.


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      4.1.14 Pratique

      Vessels arriving at Ruwais Port must carry the usual Bill of Health for Ports visited on the voyage. Masters of vessels are required to inform the Port Authorities in their pre arrival questionnaire; if there is any sick person onboard or if there has been any sickness onboard within the week prior to arrival.
      Pratique is granted by the Port Medical Officer, normally through the Pilot / Loading Master.


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      4.1.15 Pre-arrival Information

      All vessels calling at Ruwais Port must pass the pre-arrival information at least 72 hours in advance in the same format and sequential order to avoid unnecessary delays. Update ETA at 48, 24 and 12 hours prior to arrival. Contact Port Control on VHF Ch. 16/9 four (4) hours before arrival.
      Send your reply directly to the Harbour Master Ruwais Petroleum Port Authority as e-mail given in the contact details.


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      4.1.16 Documents and Specimen Forms

      Before commencement of any berthing operation by the Port Authority appointed berthing master, the ship master should sign and stamp certain initial documents. These initial documents contain:

      1. Vessel declaration by the Master
      2. Ballast declaration
      3. Conditions of use of Petroleum Ports terminal facilities
      4. Safety requirements

      In addition, Form No. 019-MAR-4, Pre-berthing declaration Supreme Petroleum Council boycott declaration.
      A supply of these initial documents will be provided at the vessel’s first visit to Ruwais Port. On second and subsequent visits, the berthing master will receive the documents, duly completed, on boarding thereby avoiding any delays to the vessel.
      Vessels to submit other documents also, viz.

      1. Crew Lists.
      2. Copy of last port clearance.
      3. Copy of the international tonnage certificate.
      4. Ship safety equipment certificate.

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      4.1.17 Uunder Keel Clearance

      Subject to limitations upon draft, under keel clearance and extreme adverse weather conditions, vessels may enter or leave at any time during the day or night.
      To ensure safe channel passage: (Channel depth is 14.0 meter at CD), a minimum under keel clearance is required for all ships entering or leaving the port when deep loaded, as follows:

      A Up to  100,000  SDWT 0.92 m / 3 Ft
      B Up to  250,000  SDWT 1.22 m / 4 Ft
      C Up to  350,000  SDWT 1.52 m / 5 Ft
      D Over   350,000  SDWT 1.83 m / 6 Ft

      Such under keel clearance may be increased at any time at the Port Authority’s discretion having due regard to weather conditions.
      Note:  While observing the safety requirements of under keel clearance, tidal delays may be experienced as follows:

      A Ships drawing 44 ft. (13.4 m) may sail at any time.
      B Ships drawing 45 ft. (13.7 m) will rarely have to wait for tide.
      C Ships drawing 46 ft. (14.0 m) will usually have to wait for tide
      D Ships drawing 47 ft. (14.3 m) will always have to wait for tide.
      E Ships drawing 48 ft. (14.6 m) will occasionally be neap.
      F Ships drawing 49 ft. (14.9 m) will be neaped + 294 days per year.

      The best months are June, July and August.
      Meteorological conditions may reduce the height of the tide by up to 1 foot (0.305 m).


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      4.1.18 Vessels Anchoring

      Vessels anchoring to await berthing instructions in Petroleum Port limit must advise  “Ruwais Port Control” via VHF Radio of:

      1. Anchoring time in LT  (L.T. is GMT + 4)
      2. Anchoring position (bearing and distance from Ghasha Racon)

      All vessels at anchor must keep a listening watch on VHF Channel 16/9. When a vessel intends to leave the anchorage, it must obtain prior approval from “Ruwais Port Control” via VHF Radio of:

      1. Intended time to heave up anchor
      2. Reason for departing
      3. Time departed anchorage

      Vessel anchoring on arrival at Outer anchorage to await berthing instruction should not anchor within 2 miles of Ghasha light buoy. (BA Chart No. 3179).The inner anchorage positions are delineated on BA Chart No. 3780 and are identified by alphabet letters.

      The navigation and anchorage is not allowed at Middle Ground Patch. The inbound vessel to Ruwais port could use the middle ground anchorage for short duration.


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      4.1.19 Pilotage

      Pilotage is compulsory for all ships navigating within port limits other than exempted ships. This rule is not applicable to U.A.E. Naval Coastguard vessels or country boats which may, having ascertained channel clearance from Port Control, proceed without the services of a pilot.

      The Pilot / Loading Masters are the designated representatives of the Port Authority and, as such, are responsible to the Port Authority for the observance and implementation of standing instructions for marine operations.

      The Pilot / Loading Master will undertake the Pilotage, berthing and unberthing of the vessel except that the Master of the vessel shall remain solely responsible on behalf of the owners for the safety and safe navigation of the vessel at all times.

      The Master should inform the pilot, the ship’s characteristics using a pilot card. This card should be completed as directed by the Master and handed to the pilot on boarding the vessel. The pilot shall inform / explain to the master the weather conditions, berthing arrangements, his navigational intentions, use of tugs and other external facilities. Such information should be agreed by the master.

      Pilot will board and disembark at the main Ghasha pilot station as Delineated on British Admiralty chart No. 3179 and 3780. One mile west of Ghasha Racon in Position  Lat  24° 25.9’ N,  Long  052° 33.4’ E.  From pilot boarding time to rendezvous with tugs takes approximately 2 Hrs. Pilot ladders / gangway to be lowered to about 1.5 m above water.

      VHF contact will be established initially on Ch. 16 or Ch. 9.  All subsequent communications will be conducted on ch. 9, the Ruwais Port working channel.

      Masters of exempted ships of suitable draft should use the North Channel and East Yabr relief channel when entering or leaving the port between East Ghasha buoy and West Kurkum buoy. Port Control must be informed in advance.

      Port Pilotage exemption certificate may be granted to Masters of regular trading vessels of less than 3,000 N.R.T. upon the Harbour Master’s satisfaction of their competence. Such certificates shall be renewed annually.

      The safe navigable draft in Stewart channel is 9 meter.

      When two ships are ready to enter and leave the Alaq Patch simultaneously, the outbound ship shall have priority over the inbound ship provided that, by so doing, the safety of navigation or the international regulations for the prevention of collision at sea are not interfered with.

      The inbound SPM Tanker’s pilot should check (random) the O2 contain for the cargo tanks before transit the channel and to pass the reading to ADCO/JD terminal for record.


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      4.1.20 Tankers, Gas Carriers, Sulphur and Bulk Carriers

      Tankers, gas carriers, sulphur and bulk carriers are not permitted to berth at or unberth from any of the berths in Ruwais Port Limit without a Port Authority pilot / loading master onboard.


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      4.1.21 General Cargo Vessels

      General cargo vessels are required to employ a pilot. Vessels are required to use the anchorage area designated for cargo operations, but may anchor in the main anchorage while awaiting weather conditions to improve or availability of lighters or if the designated anchorage is congested.


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      4.1.22 Boat

      Boat entering the service harbour are not required to hire pilotage services, but may do so by prior request to the Harbour Master. Movements of all boats into, within or out of the service harbour are at the discretion of the Harbour Master.


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      4.1.23 Exemption Certificate

      Port Pilotage exemption certificate may be granted to masters of regular trading vessels of less than 3,000 NRT upon the Harbour Master satisfaction of their competency. Such certificates shall be renewed annually (Ruwais Port).


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      4.1.24 Anchorages, Berths, Mooring and Restricted Areas

      Every vessel entering the Ruwais Petroleum Port limit shall occupy such anchorage, berth or mooring as may be directed by the Port Authority, and shall move to any other anchorage, berth or mooring as and when required by Port Authority.

      No vessel shall shift or change the anchorage, berth or mooring allotted except upon instructions from the Harbour Master.

      No vessel shall have the right to any anchorage, berth or mooring within the port by priority of arrival or any other reason.

      Note: - The main anchorage positions are delineated on Admiralty Chart No. 3780 and are identified by letter of the alphabet.

      No vessel or boat, other than boat belonging to or acting for the Port Authority, shall make fast to or make contact with any navigational aid, mark or buoy.

      No moorings for vessels shall be laid down within the port without permission from The Port Authority and any such moorings may be removed or examined as required by the Port Authority.

      No buoy, floating mark or obstruction shall be laid anywhere within the Port for any reason without permission from the Port Authority.

      The Port Authority shall have the right to remove any buoy or obstruction of whatever nature at its sole discretion and the owners thereof shall be liable for any expenditure so incurred.

      All vessels shall be moved or warped from place to place within the port by such route, means and with such appliances as may be ordered by the Port Authority.

      In the event of adverse weather conditions at times, or if, in the opinion of the Harbour Master, any situation warrants, the vessel will provide extra adequate moorings in addition to the minimum required in order to safeguard the vessel and installation.

      All ships berthing or unberthing or moving within the Port shall employ the services of such minimum number of tugs as may be required and in a manner directed by the pilot in control of such an operation.(The charges for use of these tugs have been accounted for in the prepaid port charges).

      All ships berthing or unberthing at a main sea berth, oil jetty or cargo wharf will be provided with a suitable Port Authority mooring launch (if required) to assist with the running of moorings and the lifting of submarine loading hoses in the case of ADCO’s SPMs berths. (The charges for use of such a launch have been accounted for in the prepaid port charges).

      A vessel that employs the use of a port tug without having the services of a pilot shall be charged such fees in respect of that tug as prescribed for the period of use from the time the tug left the moorings to the time returned.

      Whenever a port tug is dispatched to assist a vessel which is broken down, aground, or cannot manoeuvre as required, through some disability, special towage fees will be charged in respect of such tug as prescribe.


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      4.1.25 Restricted Areas

      A restricted area exists around the ADCO sea berths within an area bounded by a line from Jebel Dhanna jetty.

      24° 11.20’ N, 052° 37.51’ E to
      Lat. 24° 13.06’ N and Long.  052° 37.48’ E to

      A tangential position of No. 4 SPM. 1.131 M from buoy to
      A tangential position 1.131 M from SPM No. 3  to Lat. 24° 10.48’ N and Long.  052° 37.57’ E

      A restricted area exists around the Refinery, GASCO and Bulk Cargo terminals at Ruwais within an area bounded by a line from a position:

      a)  Lat. 24°08.36’N, Long. 052° 41.12’ E thence 000° to a position.
      b)  Lat. 24°11.18’N, Long. 052° 41.12’ E thence 114 to a position.
      c)  Lat. 24°10.00’N,  Long. 052°45.27’ E thence 195 to a position.
      d) Jetty head to Service Harbour (RIASH) in Lat. 24°08.12’N,  Long 052° 45.55’ E.

      Navigation and anchoring within the restricted area are prohibited except to ships with pilot on board. Within this area no vessel or boat may secure or make fast to the petroleum jetty without instruction from the Port Authority.


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      4.1.26 Emergencies, Safety of Person and Property

      If any vessel, oil terminal or construction operation is in danger or distress through fire, explosion, collision, stranding or whatever cause within the Petroleum Ports limit, the Master or Person in charge shall immediately report the fact by the quickest means to the Port Control. The Port Controller should inform the Harbour Master immediately.

      This emergency communication should be achieved, if possible, by VHF radio channel 9 and the call prefixed with the words “MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY” or by the shore port telephone system.

      For vessels at Refinery, GASCO, Bulk Sulphur or FERTIL jetties the duty fire tug maintains a listening watch on VHF channel 16 and 9.

      The Master of the vessel or the person in charge shall also take such steps as may remove or abate the danger or distress until further assistance arrives, provided that no ship shall move from its berth for the purpose until instructed by the Harbour Master.

      N.B.  Fire or Explosion

      Masters of vessels berthed at the gas or refined products terminal are hereby advised that, in the event of a fire or explosion onboard the vessel, or on the jetty, they should order an emergency stoppage of loading / discharging operations.

      Upon the stoppage of the flow of oil through the manifold, it is essential that the ship / shore loading pipes are disconnected and in an emergency a shore gang may be unavailable; henceforth the pipes should be disconnected by ship’s personnel.

      The port tugs have emergency standing orders and will proceed at once to the assistance of any jetty or vessel on fire. Tugs will hook up to the vessel’s fire wires ready to pull the vessel clear of the berth.

      If circumstances permit, the vessel’s moorings should be singled up in readiness. Quick release hooks are installed on the jetties but should these become inaccessible, the vessel should prepare to cut or slip ships moorings.


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      4.1.27 Medical Emergencies

      If any person suffers a serious injury or sickness within the port limits and immediate medical attention becomes necessary, the master of the vessel concerned or the person in charge of the location shall notify the emergency to the Port Control in a similar manner as the provisions of reporting of an emergency.

      N.B.  The Port “MEDIVAC / CASEVAC” system for such emergencies will be put into immediate effect by the Port Control.

      Masters of all vessels are hereby advised that a brief but concise description of the injury or sickness must be stated at the time of reporting. In the event a crew member has to be landed for hospitalisation, the following items should accompany the casualty:

      1. Passport and / or Seaman’s Discharge Book
      2. Vaccination Certificate
      3. Address of next of kin
      4. Brief report (if necessary pinned to an unconscious person) comprising:
      5. Time and cause of accident/sickness
      6. Time and description of medication administered, if any
      7. Further details of first aid given and / or symptoms noticed. Masters of vessels which are not berthed alongside Petroleum ports jetties, should prepare invalid cases for landing in a fast launch or for picking up by helicopter, e.g. Niel Robertson stretcher, and afford a weather lee (if possible) in adverse weather conditions.

      A medical Officer and hospital facility are available, subject to the Company’s discretion, to vessel’s crews. Charges for attention, treatment and associated facilities are for the vessel account. Request for the medical attention must be made through the Harbour Master.

      Personnel allowed ashore for medical attention must carry with them Passport and health documents and if necessary, be accompanied by an interpreter (English or Arabic). An Agency representative will accompany them to the hospital, but they will not be permitted to visit any other facilities.

      The Master of any vessel within the port for which medical or police assistance is required, shall make a request for such assistance through the Harbour Master / Agent. The transferring arrangement of the ship’s crew will be under the ship’s agent responsibility.

      The ship’s agent should notify the hospital in advance.


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      4.1.28 Pollution

      In the event that pollution of the Petroleum Ports water occurs, regardless of the cause, the person in charge or responsible for the operation, work or location where the pollution was initiated should immediately report the incident to the Port Control.

      Where the pollution is serious, particularly oily pollution, the incident must be treated as a full emergency situation, and immediately a call should be made to the Port Control for assistance.

      The Master of the vessel concerned or the person in charge shall also take such steps as may stop further pollution and contain or clean up any spillage of oil, etc. on the vessel’s deck or terminal surfaces to minimise the fire hazard potential.

      Masters are advised that the use of dispersant chemicals for response to oil pollution on the sea is prohibited.

      All vessels should have their oil spill response materials in a stand-by condition near the manifold.

      Note: - Vessels using Petroleum Ports terminals are required to observe the IMO Conventions relating to pollution of the sea by oil and are advised that violations will involve the Master, Owner and Agent in severe fines.

      Owners and vessel operators shall be liable for all expenditures incurred in the clean up operations.

      All port users and operators are advised that the failure to report a pollution incident is an offence against the regulations and persons found contravening this requirement will be prosecuted in Abu Dhabi Courts and will be liable to heavy fines.


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      4.1.29 Dangerous Goods

      No person may bring explosives or dangerous goods into the Petroleum Ports limit without the written permission of the Port Authority. Vessels importing “explosives” or dangerous goods of a flammable or corrosive nature will normally be assigned the “Explosives” anchorages on arrival.  A Port Authority representative will inspect the cargo and consult with the Master and Agent before discharge. Stowage of the dangerous goods on board vessels should meet the segregation and stowage code required by the IMDG code.

      The unauthorised handling and detonating of any explosive or pyrotechnical device within the Port limits is strictly prohibited. Where explosives are required for construction purposes the contractor concerned must apply to the Harbour Master for written permission. Blasting for commercial purposes shall be under the strict control of the Port Authority.


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      4.1.30 Private Boat

      Every privately owned boat, whether the owner be a company or a private person, used for whatever purpose within Petroleum Ports limits shall be registered at the Port Authority office.(PPA)

      The Harbour Master’s office shall inspect boat annually to ensure its:

      a)  Seaworthiness,
      b)  The number of persons, including crew, permitted to be carried,
      c)  That there are sufficient lives jackets onboard, one for each person,
      d)  That the fire and safety appliances are in good order, and
      e)  The distress signals, where applicable, are in good order.

      This rule shall apply to any private pleasure boat used for recreation or sport and propelled by oars, sails or mechanical means. In the interest of safety of life, every excursion by private boat shall be reported to the Port Control giving the destination and the intended time of return, and the person in charge of the boat shall report the safe return upon arrival.

      In addition to the annual inspection, any boat may be ordered for inspection at any time at the Harbour Master’s discretion.


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      4.1.31 Shore Access

      No person may enter the port premises or go onboard without the authorisation from the Port Authority. Shore leave for crew members is not permitted.


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      4.1.32 Use of Life Boats

      The lowering of ship’s lifeboats within the Petroleum Ports limit, also in the course of a statutory lifeboat drill, shall be duly authorised by the Port Authority, is strictly prohibited and during such drill the lifeboats shall be lowered only to embarkation deck.


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      4.1.33 Fire Wires (Towing off Wires)

      All ships shall rig two fire wires, one near the bow and one near the stern. They will be secured to bollards with a minimum of five turns and will be led directly to a Panama lead with no slack on deck. The cut board end of the wire will have an eye to which a heaving line is attached and led back to the deck. During cargo operations the heaving line should be periodically adjusted to maintain the eye of the fire wire one to two metres above the water. (Ref to annexure NO 8)


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      4.1.34 Purging and / or Inerting

      It is prohibited to carry out purging and / or inerting operations within the Petroleum Ports limit without prior permission of the Harbour Master’s office.


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      4.1.35 Rejection and Termination

      If the Harbour Master or his representative is of the opinion that the vessel is unsuitable for any reason, the Harbour Master will have the right to reject the vessel or terminate the provision of any services, including the loading of the vessel at any time prior to the vessel’s arrival at the berth or whilst at the terminal, as the case may be. All and any costs caused by the vessel by such a rejection or termination shall be to the vessel’s account.


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      4.1.36 Safety

      The Port Authority maintains a rigid safety standard. PPA (Petroleum Ports Authority) is a member of the Oil Companies International Marine Forum (O.C.I.M.F.) and as such follows procedures and safety practices recommended by this international organisation. The ship’s master is presented with a form entitled “PPA Ship / Shore Safety Checklist”. After a detailed review of each safety item with the terminal representative, the master must sign the form. Before the start of operations, and from time to time thereafter, a member of the terminal staff, where appropriate together with a responsible officer, will make a routine inspection of the ship to ensure that the ship / shore safety checklist requirements are observed by both the ship and the shore crew. In cases of blatant or repeated infringements of safety requirements, or where corrective action is needed, the terminal representative will not agree to operations commencing, or should they have been started, he will require them to be stopped and the Harbour Master will have the right to reject a vessel from the berth.


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      4.1.37 Climate

      The cool winter season extends over November to February with mean daily maximum temperatures of 25 to 30° C and night temperatures of 10 to 15° C.  The lowest recorded temperature being 4° C.  Ground frost can occur inland. The hot summer season extends over May to September with maximum day temperatures between 40 to 45°C, the highest recorded being 48° C.  Night temperatures are about 20 to 25° C. Therefore, it is important that during the hot season the temperature within the visiting tankers accommodation shall not exceed 25° C.

      Relative humidity is high throughout the year averaging between 50 to 60 per cent by day and 75 to 80 per cent by night. Heavy dew may be experienced throughout the year. Rainfall is usually associated with thunderstorms which are prevalent from November to May giving a total annual rainfall of 10 to 50 mm. Rain is rare during the remaining months while in some years there is none at all.

      Throughout the year the prevailing winds are from the West to North North East sector. They are strongest between November and April when they occasionally reach gale force. Gusts of up to 50 knots have been recorded (April) and a 24-hour mean wind speed of 32 knots from the North-West is on record (January). The shamal or strong North West wind may blow for periods of up to three days and raise a rough sea with waves up to 4.5 metres. Land and sea breeze is experienced throughout the year.

      Visibility is 10 nautical miles for 70 per cent of the time and less than 2 nautical miles up to 5 per cent on occasions due to dust, haze or radiation fog.  Fog can occur during any month of the year but is most frequent in winter, normally it develops during the night and early morning and clears by 10.00 hours. Usually the fog banks drift to seaward towards Sir Baniyas Island.

      Sea temperatures at 3 metres depth rage from 20°C (winter) to 32° C (summer).  During the summer the 15 metres depth temperature is only a degree or so lower than that at the surface.


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      4.1.38 Wind and Tide

      Prevailing winds are from the North West. Rise of tide can be up to 2 metres but the usual variation is 1 metre.

      The highest average, spring high tide is about 2.0 metres above chart datum.

      The lowest average, neap high tide is 1.0 metre above chart datum.

      However there are occasions, when sudden gusts of local ‘Shamal’ winds may be experienced where winds can go as high as 50 kts or higher.


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      4.1.39 Tidal Streams

      In the outer approaches to Ruwais, tidal streams would appear to attain a maximum of 1 knot while 1.7 knots may be encountered in the channel NE of Jazirat Sir Baniyas.

      Tidal currents in the area of the berths seldom exceed 0.4 knots.

      Tidal current is generally along a NNW  SSE  axis.

      Tides are generally diurnal; winds from NE and NW may cause an increase up to 0.6 metres in the height of the tide. Max. Tidal rise 1.2 m.


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      4.1.40 Moorings

      Vessels should have a minimum of eight mooring lines available at each end of the vessel.  General mooring patterns used are:-

      For vessels up to 130,000 DWT
        Headlines Breastlines Spring
      forward 3 2 2
      aft 3 2 2
      For vessels above 130,000 DWT
      forward 3 3 2
      aft 3 3 2

      Moorings which are of differing materials are not acceptable for use to the same mooring dolphin. Mixed moorings are not acceptable.

      Once moored, ships fitted with automatic tension winches should not use such Winches in the automatic mode.

      Mooring ropes must not be left on the winch drum. Synthetic moorings have too much elasticity and allow the vessel to range, or drift away from the berth during periods of adverse weather. Therefore moorings should preferably be all steel wires. Some vessels may use synthetic moorings for head or stern lines. However, breast and spring moorings are to be steel wires.


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      4.1.41 Marine Operation Weather Parameters – Ruwais Port

      RUWAIS
      BERTHS
      WIND
      DIRECTION
      SUSPEND
      BERTHING
      SUSPEND
      CARGO
      OPERATION
      DISCONNECT
      LOADING
      ARMS/HOSES
      UNBE-
      RTHING
      ADCO
      JD-SPM
      All
      Direction
      35 35 40 40
      TAKREER
      BERTHS
      45°
      25 30 35 PPA
      Decision
      45°
      15
      GASCO
      BERTHS
      45°
      25 30 35 PPA
      Decision
      45°
      15
      FERTIL
      SULPHUR
      BERTHS
      All
      Direction
      20 27 30 PPA
      Decision
      BOROUGE
      BERTH
      All
      Direction
      20 30 30 PPA
      Decision
      ** PPA Discretion (based on ADNOC- CoP)    
      Visibility Less than 0.5 NM                         Suspend Berthing/Unberthing
      Less than 1.0 NM                         Suspend Channel Transit

      1. It is important for all Marine Personnel to understand that the limits stated above are for Guidelines purposes.
      2. In all cases, evaluation of the situation to be conducted prior any decision reverting to the above parameters and subject to Pilot discretion. Determination: Anemometer (in knots) holding at the Specific wind speed above for Not less than 5 minutes.

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      4.1.42 Miscellaneous

      The Master or Agent of any ship within the port shall inform the port control giving at least Six (6) hrs notice of departure and shall further confirm the time of departure One (1) hr before being ready to sail.

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